Malignancy that involves the mesothelial cells of the human body, including the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and testis, known as malignant mesothelioma, either local or diffuse. Most, but not all, cases of malignant mesothelioma (malignant mesothelioma) in the pleural (lung cancer) is usually associated with exposure to asbestos. Patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma, 77% had been exposed to asbestos in the past. Diagnosis of mesothelioma is difficult to enforce because of the results of pleural fluid analysis of the cancer was usually not diagnostic. Mesothelioma is more common in men than women and it occurs most frequently at age decades into five to seven decades. Most cases (about 90%) of malignant mesothelioma in the pleura.
From its histological picture there are 3 types of mesothelioma are sarcomatous mesothelioma, epithelial, and mixed (mixed). Pleural mesothelioma usually begins as plaques and nodules which combine to produce sheetlike neoplasm. Tumor growth usually begins at the bottom of the chest. Tumors can invade the diaphragm and covering the surface of the lungs and interlobaris gap.
peritoneum in the abdominal cavity image
As the disease progresses, often extends to the lung parenchyma, mediastinum, chest wall and the wall. Pleural mesothelioma can spread to the esophagus, ribs, spine, brachial plexus, and superior vena cava.
Asbestos, amphibole asbestos, asbestos-crocidolite, and amosite asbestos in particular, is a major carcinogen involved in the pathogenesis. Exposure to chrysotile asbestos is associated with a lower incidence of mesothelioma. Industrial areas are often associated with the occurrence of mesotheliomas caused by asbestos exposure, including the mining industry, ship building which involves the use of asbestos, the manufacture of asbestos cement, ceramics, paper mills, auto parts, and factory repair trains.
Clinical manifestations / symptoms that occur in mesothelioma clinics are:
- Nonpleuritic dyspnea and chest wall pain is a symptom that most commonly occurs in malignant mesothelioma. (Approximately 60-90% of patients had symptoms of chest pain or dyspnea.)
- In patients with malignant mesothelioma, the physical findings of pleural effusion is usually determined by percussion and auscultation.
- In rare cases, malignant mesothelioma manifests as cord compression, brachial plexopathy, Horner syndrome, or superior vena cava syndrome. Death is usually caused by infection or respiratory failure of the development of mesothelioma.
- The main areas that often occurs in the pleura (87%), peritoneum (5.1%), and pericardium (0.4%).